(Planned June 2nd - 10th for year 2007. The Nara Period (Nara Jidai) of ancient Japan (710-794 CE), so called because for most of that time the capital was located at Nara, then known as Heijokyo, was a short period of transition prior to the significant Heian Period. During the Nara period, this hall was a major centre of learning and religious training. most visited in Nara Toshodaiji (唐招提寺, Tōshōdaiji) was founded in the year 759 by Ganjin, a Chinese priest who was invited to Japan by the emperor in order to train priests and improve Japanese Buddhism. Address: 160 Kasuganocho, Nara, Nara Prefecture 630-8212. The Taiho Code (Taiho Ritsuryo) was established by modeling the ruling system of Tang. The lecture hall is the only surviving part of the former Nara Imperial Palace and served as an administrative building during the imperial times. Ganjin finally came to Japan in the year 754 and founded Tōshōdai-ji in Nara. Soon after the departure on November 17, the Japanese envoy's ships hit by a heavy gale drifted to the southward, however the ship of vice envoy, Komaro, managed to keep its course to safely reach Bonotsu on December 20; indeed, it took as long as 10 years for Ganjin, who carried Buddha Relics with him, to finally realize his long-cherished desire to visit Japan. The Ritsushu sect is a Buddhist school that transmits and studies Vinaya precepts which Buddhists, especially priests and nuns should comply with; Ganjin, a successor of the Nanzan-risshu sect based on Shibunritsu (Four-Part Vinayapitaka, which explains about regulations and prohibited matters of the priest) is said to have conducted Jukai (handed down the precepts) to more than 40,000 people. Tōshōdai-ji was established in 759 by influential Chinese priest Ganjin (Jian Zhen), recruited by Emperor Shōmu to reform Buddhism in Japan. Japanese-English Bilingual Corpus of Wikipedia's Kyoto Articles. tempts to visit Japan. He founded the Ritsushu sect in Japan. In 758, Emperor Junnin showed his compassion for Ganjin by an imperial order of his, appointing him Daiwajo (honorific title for Ganjin) and relieving him from the member of Sogo (Office of Monastic Affairs), so that Ganjin might only transmit the Vinaya precepts as he wanted. The Japanese viewed protecting the nation as part of the clergy’s mission. Jianzhen (Chinese: 鑒真; Wade–Giles: Chien-chen; 688–763), or Ganjin in Japanese, was a Chinese monk who helped to propagate Buddhism in Japan. Again this time, however, strong anxiety of Ganjin's disciplines, Lingyu, for his master's safety brought him to civil authorities to stop Ganjin crossing the sea to Japan. Yakushiji Temple (薬師寺) The construction work of the original temple started at Asuka, the South part of Nara. Ganjin finally came to Japan in the year 754 and founded Tōshōdai-ji in Nara. ), A translation of the Tōdaiwajō tōseiden 唐大和上東征傳.” (Part 1), A translation of the Tōdaiwajō tōseiden 唐大和上東征傳. Nara Period (710-784) The Nara Period (奈良時代 Nara jidai) is the historical period beginning in 710, the year the capital was moved from Fujiwarakyō to Heijōkyō (the modern-day city of Nara), and ending in 784 when the capital was moved to Nagaokakyō.The ten years at Nagaokakyō (784-794) are usually included in the Nara Period, however, giving it an end-date of 794. He founded the Ritsushu sect in Japan. In 759, Ganjin was given the former residence of Imperial Prince Niitabe to build Toshodai-ji Temple and set up a Kaidan platform. It was first performed in the year 6 of the period Tenpyoo Shoohoo 天平勝宝 (754), when priest Ganjin came from China and initiated the emperor Shomu Tenno 聖武上皇, Koken Tenno 孝謙天皇 and others. Ganjin stayed at Daiun-ji Temple of this place for a year, and transmitted a plenty of knowledge about medicine in Hannan Island. The Toshodaiji Temple dates back to 759 when it was established by a priest from China known as Ganjin. At Nara, Jianzhen presided over Tōdai-ji. In 710 the imperial capital was shifted a short distance from Asuka to Nara. Album Leaf from The Thirty-Six Immortal Poets (Ishiyama-gire), 12th century. In 759 he retired to a piece of land granted to him by the imperial court in the western part of Nara. Genkai, Aomi-no Mabito; Takakusu J., trans. The Kō-dō (Lecture Hall) behind the Kon-dō also dates from the late eighth century, and is more Japanese in styling. This priest was invited by the Emperor of Japan to visit the country to improve Japan’s understanding of Buddhism and train each monk and priest of the region. The Nara period (710–784) Beginning of the imperial state. Priest Ganjin. Founded by the Chinese priest Ganjin in 759, it was the head temple of the Ritsu Buddhist sect. In the Fujiwara Period, however, there was a surge of secular painting, both landscape and scenes of daily court life, painted on folding screens (屏風 byōbu , lit. When he finally succeeded on his sixth attempt he had lost his eyesight as a result of an infection acquired during his journey. This was the beginning of todan-jukai (handing down the precepts). Time: 8th century Place: Toshodai-ji, Nara Period: Nara Ganjin, a monk, arrived in Nara at 66 years of age with a blinding infection (which he got from his travels from China) He presided over Todai-ji and is credited with installing the correct ordination of the Buddhist clergy It is one of the few temples relatively undamaged over the centuries and has several important buildings, including the oldest existing example of Nara … Heijo Palace – When Nara was capital of Japan during the Nara Period in the 8 th century, the city was called Heijo-kyo and the palace became its centrepiece. The Toshodai-ji Temple was founded by the Chinese priest Ganjin, who came to Japan spreading the principles of Buddhism. The crossing failed and in the following years, Jianzhen made three more attempts but was thwarted by unfavourable conditions or government intervention. Being implored to come to Japan by him, Ganjin decided to make his fifth attempt to reach Japan. Jianzhen was then forced to make his way back to Yangzhou by land, lecturing at a number of monasteries on the way. (1929). Toshodai-ji Temple: Where Master Ganjin stood - See 629 traveler reviews, 740 candid photos, and great deals for Nara, Japan, at Tripadvisor. There were a few copies of Chinese-style landscapes, and portraits in the Chinese fashion of significant ecclesiastical figures like the Chinese priest Ganjin. Genkai, Aomi-no Mabito; Takakusu J., trans. Ganjin Priest Ganjin The Abbot Ganjin View Title Bust Creator/Culture Japanese Site/Repository Repository: Kaisan-do, Tōshōdai-ji (Nara, Nara prefecture, Kinki, Japan) Period/Date Nara period Creation date: ca. In 755, the first ordination platform in Japan was constructed at Tōdai-ji, on the place where including former Emperor Shōmu and Empress Kōmyō received ordination by Jianzhen a year earlier. When he finally succeeded on his sixth attempt he had lost his eyesight as a result of an infection acquired during his journey. Additionally, in 779, Ganjin's biography, "To Daiwajo Toseiden" (Eastern Expedition of Ganjin, the Great Tang Monk) was written by OMI no Mifune, which is a precious historical material to indicate Ganjin's achievement. Accepting the invitation of Yoei and Fusho, Ganjin asked his disciples to go to Japan, but had no volunteers. This is a portrait of the priest Ganjin, created after his death. Nyoirin Kannon, c. 840. In 751, Ganjin left Hannan Island to return to Yangzhou. Leaving in June, and waiting wind of change for a few months at the Zhoushan islands, Ganjin started on a voyage for Japan in November, but he encountered a severe storm and ended up drifting down to Hainan Island, far south from Japan, after 14-day drift. They reached Nara in the spring of the next year and were welcomed by the Emperor. He was blind. On the way, Yoei passed away in Duanzhou. With careful preparations, Ganjin made the second attempt to sail for Japan in January, 744, but a heavy wind forced him temporarily return back to Yuyao, Mingzhou. Toshodaiji (Nara) — the head temple of Risshu, or the Ritsu school of Buddhism — was founded in the Nara period by Ganjin Wajo — a high priest from the Tang Dynasty in … In the eleven years from 743 to 754, Jianzhen attempted to visit Japan some six times. After an eventful sea journey of several months, the group finally landed at Kagoshima, Kyūshū, on December 20. Jianzhen is credited with the introduction of the Ritsu school of Buddhism to Japan, which focused on the vinaya, or Buddhist monastic rules. Ganjin Priest Ganjin The Abbot Ganjin View Title 3/4 view of proper left, Detail: Head and chest Creator/Culture Japanese Site/Repository Repository: Kaisan-do, Tōshōdai-ji (Nara, Nara prefecture, Kinki, Japan) Period/Date Nara period Creation date: ca. Phoenix Hall, Byodo-in, c. 1053. A dry-lacquer statue of him made shortly after his death can still be seen at Tōshōdai-ji. Although these Vinaya precepts governing the life and behavior of Buddhist priests and nuns are ones of the most important matters in Buddhism, the Japanese had not thought Jukai so important for a long time; for example, at first when Buddhism was introduced to Japan, Jisei Jukai (self-administered precepts) was permitted. Then, he resolved to travel to Japan himself, accompanied by 21 of his disciples who had heard their master's resolution. "Ganjin" redirects here. In autumn 742, an emissary from Japan invited Jianzhen to lecture in Japan. After arrested, Yoei succeeded in escaping from prison, pretending to die of disease, and then Ganjin and his party headed for Fuzhou, where they had planned to set sail for Japan because they thought it difficult to sail from Jiangsu or Zhejiang. His surname was Chunyu. Therefore, Yoei and Fusho went to Tang (China) to invite 10 duly ordained Chinese priests prescribed by the Vinaya, and visited Ganjin, who had already distinguished himself as a great Vinaya master. Later he founded the Toshodaiji Temple (Nara Prefecture) and wrote three religious volumes though blind. In May 2010, the Taiwanese Buddhist organization Tzu Chi organized and produced an animated drama on Jianzhen's life and journey to Japan. proportioned temples of its period remaining, was founded in 759 by the illustrious Ganjin, a blind priest from China who arrived in Japan after many tribulations. In the Nara period, however, the Vinaya precepts gradually started to be recognized their importance to increase the need to institute orthodox monastic ordinations of the Jukai. [4] The statue was temporarily brought to Jianzhen's original temple in Yangzhou in 1980 as part of a friendship exchange between Japan and China. In 753, he guided Ganjin, who came to Japan from Tang, to Dazaifu, Kyushu, and served as an interpreter for Ganjin when this … In the ten years until his death in Japan, Jianzhen not only propagated the Buddhist faith among the aristocracy, but also served as an important conductor of Chinese culture. This epoch of Japanese history is known as the Nara Period. The Todai-Ji Temple was founded by a Chinese priest called Ganjin in the year 759. Nara Period, Priest Ganjin, Japan. During that return journey to Yangzhou, the climate in the southern region and exhaustion deprived Ganjin of his sight (one theory says that he didn't totally lose his sight). Ninki, one of Ganjin's disciples, who mourned his master's death, made the sculpture of Ganjin (Dakkatsu-kanshitsu [hollow dry lacquer: A method of making lacquer statues, popular in the Nara period], colored; a technique to form a framework of statue by layering of lacquered hemp cloth, and the both hands are carved in wood), which the Toshodai-ji Temple has preserved until today (Statue of Ganjin in Toshodai-ji Temple, national treasure) and is said the first portrait sculpture in Japan. Dry lacquer, 763, Nara Period, Toshodai-ji, Founder's Hall; Among earliest portraits of a real person in Japan; hollow-core dry lacquer technique. Gilded wood. The ashes of this Buddhist monk were incorporated in its creation. Ganjin underwent tremendous hardships in his attempts to visit Japan and spread Buddhism. The ancient capital of Nara is located in Nara Prefecture, just south of Kyoto. 13. It was the site of the city of Heijo-kyo, established in 710. He opened the Buddhist temple as a place of healing, creating the Beitian Court (悲田院)—a hospital within Daming Temple. When the compound, Kai-ritsu (Vinaya precepts in Japanese) is used, 'kai' refers to self-imposed vows and 'ritsu' denotes vows among priests and nuns. In the autumn of 753, the blind Jianzhen decided to join a Japanese emissary ship returning to its home country. However, Emperor Hsuan Tsung (Tang Dynasty) of those days prohibited Ganjin from going to Japan because he thought it pity for China to lose Ganjin's brilliant brain. Ganjin (688-June 25, 763) was a naturalized priest in the Nara period. Study 16 3 (Nara, Tenpyo, Heian, Jogan) flashcards from Phoenix J. on StudyBlue. In January, 754, Ganjin arrived at the Heijo-kyo (the ancient capital of Japan in current Nara), and was welcomed by Emperor Shomu and others; by an imperial decree of Empress Koken, the establishment of Kaidan (Buddhist ordination platform) and Jukai were entirely left to Ganjin, and he resided at Todai-ji Temple. In 748, Yoei visited Ganjin at Daming Temple again. Ganjin was born in Jiiangyang, Yangzhou in Tang. To vow 'ritsu,' (meaning to vow to keep codes of discipline which govern the Buddhist monastic life), a rite must be performed in front of more than 10 qualified priests and nuns; this is Jukai. Kaidan-in of the Todai-ji Temple was also built for a permanent ordination platform, and after that, in 761, Kaidan platforms were constructed at Kanzeon-ji Temple in Dazaifu (present day in Fukuoka Prefecture in Kyushu) and at Yakushi-ji Temple of Shimotsuke Province (Shimotsuke City, north of present day Tokyo) so that todan-jukai might be conferred from the east to the west part of Japan; as a result, the Vinaya precepts system had rapidly developed. But the ship was blown off course and ended up in the Yande (延德) commandery on Hainan Island. Toshodai-ji – Founded in 759 by a Chinese priest named Ganjin, Toshodai-ji is a temple that honours the contributions of its founder to the beginnings of Buddhism in Japan. Ganjin and Vinaya (the precepts of Buddhism) Ganjin was born in Jiiangyang, Yangzhou in Tang. Toshodai-ji Temple: Where Master Ganjin stood - See 632 traveler reviews, 747 candid photos, and great deals for Nara, Japan, at Tripadvisor. Hokke-dō (法華堂), Tōdai-ji, Nara, Nara: Priest Gyōshin (乾漆行信僧都坐像, kanshitsu gyōshin sōzu zazō) Statue of the founder of the Hall of Dreams (夢殿, yumedono) Nara period, second half of 8th century Dry lacquer (乾漆, kanshitsu) Seated Gyōshin: 89.7 cm (35.3 in) Ganjin was forced to stay in China. Jianzhen died on the 6th day of the 5th month of 763. Nara city is an intimate place. gold and color on silk, hanging scroll. He also opened Hiden-in, (a facility for the elderly, disabled, sick and orphans), being actively involved in relief efforts for the poor. (1928). On the far side of Nara station is Toshodaiji temple. His surname was Chunyu. After a period of 12 years, in which he failed five times to cross the Japan Sea, he was finally able to land in Japan, though he had, by that time, become totally blind due to the tough voyages. Jianzhen's life story and voyage are described in the scroll, "The Sea Journe… There he founded a school and also set up a private temple, Tōshōdai-ji. Wood. In addition to the Vinaya precepts, Ganjin imparted his deep knowledge about sculptures and medical herbs to Japan. In Ritsu …an invitation to Chien-chen (Japanese: Ganjin), a leading Chinese scholar of vinaya. Some of the oldest wooden architecture, paintings and sculptures reside here. Jianzhen (Chinese: 鑒真; Wade–Giles: Chien-chen; 688–763), or Ganjin in Japanese, was a Chinese monk who helped to propagate Buddhism in Japan. In the eleven years from 743 to 754, Jianzhen attempted to visit Japan some six times. Since his teacher Ganjin was in Nara, Gantei might well have participated in these events.The imperially — sanctioned history Shoku Nihongi, written in the early Heian period (Heian period 884-1185), notes that in the 10th … Ganjin's first attempt to cross the sea to Japan in summer of 743 ended up in failure since Japanese priests were deported from China by a false information to officers of the harbor that 'Japanese priests were, in fact, pirates,' which was told by some of Ganjin's disciples who desired to keep him in China. Scene from the ‘Minori’ from The Tale of Genji, 12th century. In 742, when he was a chief priest of Daming Temple in Yangzhou, he was implored to transmit the Vinaya precepts to Japan by Yoei and Fusho, priests dispatched to Tang from Japan. In 752, Ganjin, who had decided to go to Japan without fail, promised FUJIWARA no Kiyokawa, who was a Kento-shi (a Japanese envoy to Tang Dynasty China) and visited him, to execute his decision. Early Heian Period, Womb World and Diamond World Mandala of To-ji, Japan. Jocho, Late Heian Period, Amitabha buddha of the Phoenix hall, Japan. The statue is made public only during a limited number of days around the anniversary of Jianzhen's death (see it on the right). Gannet may have been inspired in part to build a temple to Bishamonten in 770 because of an event related to Bishamonten that happened 4 years prior in the then Imperial Capital of Nara. What are the Highlights of an Exclusive visit to the Tangzhaoti Temple Exhibition? Heian Period. The Chinese monks who travelled with him introduced Chinese religious sculpture to the Japanese. Being upset, Ganjin headed for Tenjiku (India) from Canton, but he was dissuaded from doing so by his disciples and devotees. Besides his learning in the Tripiṭaka, Jianzhen is also said to have been an expert in medicine. Although most are wooden, 11 entries in the list are bronze, 11 are lacquer, 7 are made of clay and 1 entry, the Usuki Stone Buddhas, is a stone sculpture.Typically hinoki, Japanese nutmeg, sandalwood and camphorwood were the woods used for the wooden sculptures. For the next 75 years, with minor gaps, Nara was the seat of government, and the old custom of changing the capital with each successive emperor was finally discarded. Toshodaiji Temple. The entire failed enterprise took him close to three years. The “Ganjin Wajo-zo” (statue of the Priest Ganjin) is a national treasure, and is the oldest portrait sculpture in Japan. Jianzhen was born in Jiangyin county in Guangling Prefecture (present day Yangzhou, Jiangsu) China, with the surname of Chunyu (淳于). Early Heian Period, Medicine Buddha of Jingoji, Japan. At twenty he travelled to Chang'an for study and returned six years later, eventually becoming abbot of Daming Temple. In his replanning of the departure, a betrayal of someone who grudged Ganjin's leaving for Japan resulted in Yoei's arrest and Ganjin also failed his third attempt. Nara Period. Buddha Roshana, 8th century. This was the first such perception in Japan. [2] Despite protests from his disciples, Jianzhen made preparations and in spring 743 was ready for the long voyage across the East China Sea to Japan. After a period of 12 years, in which he failed five times to cross the Japan Sea, he was finally able to land in Japan, though he had, by that time, become totally blind due to the tough voyage. Jianzhen travelled along the Gan River to Jiujiang, and then down the Yangtze River. Various materials have been used for the sculptures. (Part 2), Ganjin: From Vinaya Master to Ritsu School Founder, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jianzhen&oldid=992776463, Articles containing traditional Chinese-language text, Pages using religious biography with multiple nickname parameters, Articles having different image on Wikidata and Wikipedia, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Priest Ganjin, 8th century. For the village in Iran, see. In 763, he passed away at the Toshodai-ji Temple. At the age of fourteen, he became a disciple of Dayun Temple (大云寺). Enkei (Priest) (延慶 (僧)) Enkei (dates of birth and death unknown) was a Buddhist priest in the Nara period. Statistics Editar. For this reason, in 753 when the Kento-shi returned to Japan, FUJUWARA no Kiyokawa, the chief envoy of Japan, refused Ganjin to get on board. In 756 Ganjin was appointed to the bureau of clergy, which controlled the issuing of certificates for ordination. Ganjin (Jianzhen) (鑑真) Ganjin (688-June 25, 763) was a naturalized priest in the Nara period. In the following year a special hall, Kaidan-In 戒壇院, was constructed for this ceremony, where the Jukai ceremony was performed. …most important of these was Ganjin (Chinese: Jianzhen), who finally reached Nara in 753 on his sixth attempt and founded the Ritsu sect at Tōshōdai Temple. Knowing that, OTOMO no Komaro, the vice-envoy, secretly let Ganjin board his ship. [3] Recognised as one of the greatest of its type, it has been postulated by statue restoration experts that the statue incorporates linen clothing originally worn by Ganjin. © A. C. 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